Sabian Philosophy

William T. Roche


The title of this series not withstanding, it would be difficult to encompass the entirety of Sabian Philosophy within the confines of a few web pages. I will not attempt to do so. Technically, the philosophy of Marc Edmund Jones, founder of the Sabian Assembly, is known as Dynamic Idealism. This describes a philosophy that generally follows Platonic thinking in that it recognizes the transcendental underpinnings of reality. Yet it is definitely dynamic or to-be-practiced in the everyday world. That much said, I will share with you my view of the essence of this underlying philosophy while avoiding (as best as I can) "scholarly" dissertations. This approach is exploratory rather than definitive.

Very early in the development the Sabian Assembly, Jones discovered the 11th century philosopher Ibn Gabirol through the latter's treatise Fons Vitae, which can be translated either as The Fountain of Life or The Source of Life. In 1926 he wrote an interpretation of Gabirol's work in the form of twenty-six, three-page "lessons." He called this lesson set "Ibn Gabirol's Source of Life." Jones' intent was to formulate a modern cabala using Gabirol as his source. Sometimes it is difficult to separate Gabirol from Jones.

I have chosen Dr. Jones' Source of Life lesson set as representative of the underlying philosophy of the Sabian Assembly. Each chapter develops a keyword concept: health, belonging, spontaneity, responsibility, etc., where each keyword concept is based on a particular text of Gabirol's Fons Vitae. The articles of this series summarize both the philosophy of Gabirol and the interpretation of Jones.

All references to Ibn Gabirol's Fons Vitae are to the English translation by Alfred Jacob entitled The Fountain of Life, published by the Sabian Publishing Society, 1987.

You may read the various parts of Sabian Philosophy by selecting a topic from the side bar to the left. Although there is a natural progression to the concepts, beginning with health and continuing in order, the articles may be read in any sequence.

The Concept of Health

The foundational concept of Sabian Philosophy is health. It was chosen as the word most representing the universal characteristic of anything that exists. The fact that anything — a person or a rock — exists means that it has "health," or persistence in being. This concept has significant implications for us as we live our everyday lives.

Sabian philosophy teaches that having health does not mean that the individual is supposed to be free of any and all limitation — whether that limitation is in the form of physical disorder, emotional or mental upset, or economical difficulty. Health, as understood in our philosophy, is touch with source such that ill health is never a limiting factor in the pursuit of higher purpose. It is this centering in source that enables us to function in every essential way in spite of these limitations. The underlying psychology here is that the challenge presented by the limitation spurs us on to uncover workable solutions from within ourselves thereby creating a life that is purposeful and rewarding . A life without limitation would be a life of stagnation. We are healthy as we persist in the accomplishment of our chosen goals despite superficial upsetments. Healing becomes a matter of garnering the mental perspective and emotional fortitude to continue on a chosen path. You can see this pattern in the life of any person of great accomplishment.

This approach to creative living is based on Ibn Gabirol's Fountain of Life Book 1, Chapter 10. Here the Teacher posits a "universal matter" as underlying everything that exists. Because this universal matter is, in effect, a potential seeking positive expression, it forms the underlying "stuff" of us all. It is this potential, inherent in every being, that is the "health" or creative power providing us the opportunity to live a self-directed life.

A practical application of the concept of health would be to find something positive in the next unpleasant situation in which you find yourself thus finding value, or health, in even the worst of situations.

The Concept of Belonging

Health, or touch with source, is the foundation of the structure of self, but it is only a beginning point. The first step to any real knowledge of self is in establishing a relationship with others. Hence the necessity of belonging. At first this is through the conditioned responses to family and social mores. All too often we find zealots who rail against the "brainwashing" of family customs, religious indoctrination and national propaganda. Such a person does not realize that conditioning is a necessary part of "becoming." We cannot grow in a vacuum. What the zealot fails to realize (or perhaps realizes only subconsciously) is that we must outgrow the unthinking reflexes of conditioned behavior. It is a natural function of growth to either consciously accept the mores of our upbringing or to reject them in favor of more acceptable, self-discovered values.

Sabian philosophy teaches that conditioning is negative only when it imprisons the soul in the dungeon of unthinking response. Conditioning is positive when it encourages a self-discipline that leads the self to release the underlying uniqueness of its social potential.

This approach to creative living is based on Ibn Gabirol's Fountain of Life Book II, Chapter 5. Here the Teacher explains that quantity, that is physical bodies, is the category that separates one being from another. He rejects the idea that quantity is an essential element of being. Rather, quantity is just as much a nonessential element of our being as is the color of our skin or the clothes we wear. It follows from this that there is no real separation of one human being from another. It is this condition of the physical (quantitative) world that places the "I" here and "You" there. Remove our coats of skin and we become, ultimately, one in mind, heart, and spirit. We are, indeed, one.

A practical application of the concept of belonging would be to 1) affirm some positive quality that you find in yourself and 2) affirm some positive quality in someone you really dislike.

The Concept of Spontaneity

In our culture we are conditioned to be wary of being too spontaneous. We are taught that it is a sign of emotions running rampant. This cultural attitude is based on the false premise that human nature is inherently evil and, if allowed free expression, would surely lead to destructive behavior. Sabian philosophy teaches otherwise. There is an assumption in this philosophy that human nature is fundamentally good and, when properly nurtured, can be trusted to act, even spontaneously, in conformity with right reason. There are, of course, examples of spontaneous behavior that appear to inherently destructive, as in the crimes and passions of much of our society. But this is the result of a society that has made self-interest its primary motivating factor. Such destructive behavior does not change the inherent goodness of human nature.

Sabian philosophy teaches that spontaneity or enthusiasm or drive is a power inherent in human will and is the urge behind all achievement. In Christian teaching, this is the work of the Holy Spirit as intermediary between God and man. As this drive is conditioned with a care-for-others attitude, human will becomes a constructive rather than destructive force.

This approach to creative living is based on Ibn Gabirol's Fountain of Life Book I, Chapter 7. Here the Teacher declares that there are three basic considerations in all of philosophy, namely, every effect is the result of a cause and it is will that is the intermediary between the two. The idea of will as the primary factor in all creative act has tremendous ramifications for us in our daily lives. If we want to lead a productive life of social merit and to grow in the life of the spirit, all that is required is that we just do it!

A practical application of the concept of spontaneity would be to "do something spontaneous." It may be out of character to act so spontaneously, and may even be somewhat embarrassing, but through it you will learn to trust your inherent good will towards others.

The Concept of Responsibility

In each of the three concepts preceding this one, there is an underlying assumption of responsibility that serves as the rudder, if you will, for proper growth in the concepts. We can speak of our sensations, our emotions, and our mental processes as if each was a "part" of the self. Such divisions are a convenience of thought and have no basis in reality. The human being is a continuum from "soul to body," body being the physical expression of the spiritual soul. We are forever responsible for the "whole" of ourselves. The concept of responsibility is the readiness to come to terms with our individual strengths and weaknesses. If our emotions drive us to uncontrollable anger, we must look to the nature of our underlying intolerance and not to the outer circumstances that were the occasion of our outburst.

Sabian philosophy teaches that there is no validity to the oft-heard lament that "I was forced by people or circumstances into this or that course of action." We are always the masters of our destiny and it is the degree of responsible commitment to our decisions that makes our stature as human beings greater or lesser. The buck stops "here" eternally.

This approach to creative living is based on Ibn Gabirol's Fountain of Life Book V, Chapter 15. Here the Teacher goes into great detail to explain that the "spiritual substance" of the human being contains within itself a vital or life-giving soul, an animal soul and a human soul all given expression in the physical body. In the human being, these "souls" are not "parts" but functions within the rational or human soul. In proper, or spiritual, growth the lower functions of human nature are to be made the servants of the rational soul and never the reverse.

A practical application of the concept of responsibility would be to voluntarily self-assume a task that you are not under any obligation to perform, and carry the assignment through to the end. In this way you will come to realize that all self-assumed tasks of everyday living are a personal responsibility

The Concept of Romance

There is not one of us who does not admire and applaud the frantic mother who defies every danger and risks her very life to save her child from an impending harm. Such is the power of maternal love. Equally, during a local crisis, for example a violent storm, the residents will risk all to help a neighbor. Such is the power of communal love. In times of national or world conflict, complete strangers will give their lives for people they do not know for the sake of high values such as freedom. Such is the power of universal love. What you have here are examples of the power of the ideal, understood and applied. This is the meaning of romance. It is the power to find special meaning in the ordinary events of daily living and raise these events to the ideal level.

Sabian philosophy teaches that we are romantic as we find ways to give meaning to otherwise ordinary actions in everyday affairs. We can raise the facts of every day to the level of beauty as we see beyond the "shell" of facts and find how these facts can raise the life of personality to the life of soul. A friendly smile in the course of a trying business transaction can be pure romance.

This approach to creative living is based on Ibn Gabirol's Fountain of Life Book III, Chapter 15. Here the Teacher instructs his pupil on the nature of simple substances. Feelings are finer (more simple or elemental) than rocks, and thoughts more simple and penetrating than feelings. From this we learn that thoughts and emotions are things and, indeed, have the power to be forces for great good or for immeasurable harm. We must come to understand the creative power that we have at our command.

A practical application of the concept of romance would be to start a friendly conversation in the next long checkout line that you are in. In this way, your shopping trip will be romantic, that is, have meaning far beyond the cost of a loaf of bread.

The Concept of Initiation

It has been wisely said that the way to begin is to begin. This is one of the meanings of initiation's form of just do it. There is another meaning that is often associated with religious rites whereby a candidate is initiated into the believing community. The sacraments of the Christian community are an example of this. There is still another meaning of spiritual significance that is subjective in nature and that indicates both a growth in understanding and a transformation of life style. In this latter, there is a fuller understanding of divine purpose, and a consequent giving of self to greater world service. In these examples, the move is from a more objective and manifest ceremony (the sacraments) to a more subjective and less manifest realization (spiritual transformation).

Sabian philosophy teaches that the seeking soul must till the soil of self by living a life of higher values and thus provide the ground upon which the spiritual transformation of initiation can take place. As this is a totally subjective experience there never need be any external sign of the new life within, other than that of greater service to one's fellows.

This approach to creative living is based on Ibn Gabirol's Fountain of Life Book III, Chapter 28. Here the Teacher shows by example that the higher the spiritual form, the less manifest it will be to the senses. The highest of these created spiritual forms is the light of reason. Right reason is likened (in modern terminology) to the beam of a flashlight in a dark room. The light makes manifest that upon which the beam falls; the rest remains in darkness. It is in this way, the Teacher maintains, that the highest spiritual form, by intelligent union with matter, can be made manifest in the world.

A practical application of the concept of initiation would be to do a good deed — a Boy Scout deed. Such a deed can be a symbolic reminder that any growth on the spiritual path is validated only by one's actions in the world of every day.

The Concept of Devotion

It is a trend these days for people to blame their destructive behaviors on either the misfortune of an abusive childhood or a "chemical imbalance." Without denying that there is an interplay between the social-physical orders and behavior, it is putting the cart before the horse when ultimate blame is attributed to factors beyond our control. The "I" must take the final responsibility for self if the "I" wants to grow into an integrated human being. Failure to take responsibility for personal actions chains the soul to the dungeon of conditioned behavior and thereby inhibits the spiritual growth that is its destiny. The badly abused child may never overcome the ravages of his (or her) childhood but he must try, for it is in the trying that he grows in spiritual stature.

Sabian philosophy teaches that devotion is the sacrifice of lesser interests to greater ideals. This is never merely an inner experience of deep feeling nor is it simply a matter of reciting pious phrases. Devotion makes transcendental values real in everyday life. By emphasizing the physical and emotional components of experience — real in their own right — we never align ourselves with the transcendent values of "higher mind" that are the only truly human attributes.

This approach to creative living is based on Ibn Gabirol's Fountain of Life Book III, Chapter 48. Here the Teacher again explains the nature of the three souls. He clarifies that a plant has only a vital (life-giving) soul; an animal has both a vital and an animal soul; the human being has a vital soul (necessary for sense perception), an animal soul (necessary for emotional response and concrete reasoning), and a rational soul (necessary for abstract reasoning). He further explains that in humans it is the rational soul that "rules" the other two.

A practical application of the concept of devotion would be to consciously forego an emotional outburst through an act of will. Through this act you are choosing a path of higher values rather than reacting to the conditioned response of an undisciplined mind.

The Concept of Imagination

A popular notion of imagination is that it is a device of an immature mind wasting time in idle daydreaming. It can certainly be used in such fashion. But there is more to this wonderful capacity of the human mind. Imagination is the royal road to accomplishment. Imagination is the employment of pure potentiality or the capacity to vicariously experience ideal reality. When employed in a constructive manner, this imaginative faculty places before the mind's eye the goal to be achieved and, if used productively, provides the means of achievement. It is a tool of creation! We little realize that we are creators in the same manner as the Divine Creator. Our domain of activity is just more limited.

Sabian philosophy teaches that we must realize that our senses function through the vital soul and thus we learn to master the physical world; that our emotions function through our animal soul and thus we learn to utilize the world of concrete reasoning and emotions; and that our reason functions through our rational soul and thus we learn to become human.

This approach to creative living is based on Ibn Gabirol's Fountain of Life Book III, Chapter 57. Here the Teacher explains the hierarchy of the four kingdoms found in nature (mineral, vegetal, animal, and human), much after the fashion of the previous paragraph. In his discussion, he emphasizes that the lower kingdom always serves the higher kingdom. He does this validly even though he uses the model of Ptolemaic Astronomy, which Galileo demonstrated was incorrect.

A practical application of the concept of imagination would be to use this imaginative faculty to find a situation in which you can create a "grand gesture." One suggestion might be to do something totally unexpected for someone — like paying the toll for the car behind you at the toll booth.

The Concept of Challenge

On the surface of it, challenge seems to be an easy enough concept to grasp. Whenever something is difficult to accomplish, we recognize that the task at hand will be challenging. In the previous article on Imagination we recognized that the human being functions within the four kingdoms: mineral (physical), vegetal (living), emotional (animal) and mental (human). Challenge operates on all of these levels. Today's society seems obsessed with physical challenge: weight control, exercise, sporting events — all very acceptable challenges. However, don't you ever wonder why we do not hear more about moral and ethical challenges? Do we not have the challenge to refrain from lying and cheating another? Do we not have the challenge to hold our tempers when another driver cuts us off in heavy traffic?

Sabian philosophy teaches that it is from the human level (the mental kingdom), the level of values, fair play, ethical standards, and moral certitude that we must direct our lives. These are human values and the ones that guide us to truly human living. Lying, cheating, stealing, deception, pettiness and the like come from the level of materialism and self-pandering. They are not human values.

This approach to creative living is based on Ibn Gabirol's Fountain of Life Book III, Chapter 56. Here the Teacher instructs his pupil that the less dense substances have the power to control the more dense substances (thoughts are less dense than emotions; emotions less dense than vegetal life; and vegetal life less dense than rocks). It becomes clear that this philosophical position supports the thesis that man at his mental or spiritual level can overcome his lower nature.

A practical application of the concept of challenge would be to take a self-inventory regarding the times in one day that you have acted in a way that was not "human," that is, when you may have cheated someone, told a lie, spoke an unkind word or acted in some other less than human manner.

The Concept of Mastership

Recognizing a master — a master plumber, a master carpenter, or a spiritual master, is recognizing that this person has mastered the required degree of excellence in some special discipline. Such an accomplishment is not easily achieved. It requires both theoretical knowledge and practical experience. It involves accepting challenges that the non-master is not asked to accept. It requires an expenditure of personal effort that the average individual can avoid. For the spiritual master, it requires a habitual attitude of living under the impulse of social vision. The spiritual master is a person of broad experience in the world of men. His vision is so inclusive that he can embrace a person of any ethical persuasion or system of belief as long as that person is of good will.

Sabian philosophy teaches that a spiritual master is one whose roots, like those of a tree, are spread in all directions and yet are so interconnected and unified that they cooperate fully in nourishing a vast number of branches. This is in sharp contrast to the person of narrow perspective and blinding prejudice whose roots are so constricted that he can support but a few branches.

This approach to creative living is based on Ibn Gabirol's Fountain of Life Book IV, Chapter 10. Here the Teacher speaks of a hierarchy of being that has the ability to encompass a broader span of reality the higher up in the hierarchy it is. Reason or intellect is the highest of these and so is the most capable of embracing all reality below itself.

A practical application of the concept of mastership would be to try to find some opinion that you hold — political, religious, or social — that may be suspect of prejudice or limited vision and rethink your opinion in the clear and objective light of reason.

The Concept of Courage

We most often, and rightly, think of courage as some heroic act in time of need or crisis. Yet there is another kind of courage, the "everyday" kind. We do not often apply the word courage to a person's faithfulness in providing for a family, caring for an elderly parent, or enduring the rigors (or boredom) of educating ourselves for a more rewarding place in society. However, persistence in trying to make this world a better place to live, for others and ourselves, is definitely a form of courage. This is most assuredly so when we have the courage to live our lives according to the higher values that we respect and admire. In philosophical language, this is bringing into manifestation the higher forms of awareness, which is ever the goal of the truly spiritual person.

Sabian philosophy teaches that those who "remain active in the world" are everyday heroes full of courage. Through persistence in this search for a life of higher values, we bring greater awareness into the world. In Sabian philosophy, a higher form of consciousness (awareness) is the goal of every soul. We increase consciousness in ourselves and in the world at large whenever we become aware of the need of others and of our ability to be of service to them.

This approach to creative living is based on Ibn Gabirol's Fountain of Life Book V, Chapter 18. Here the Teacher illustrates that higher forms penetrate lower forms in a hierarchy of emanations. This is similar, he says, to the sun whose rays penetrate the atmosphere to every extreme of the planet in unbroken continuity. This "light of the sun" is an emanation from the highest consciousness that will penetrate all living forms if we will only participate in it by living a life of higher values (consciousness).

A practical application of the concept of courage would be to "remain active in the world" by occasionally turning off the TV and "be active," even if that is only by reading a thought provoking book.

The Concept of Inspiration

We can be inspired to evil deeds as well as noble ones. It is said that Charles Manson claimed to be inspired by the Beatles' music to go on his killing spree. This is not as outlandish as it might first seem. It is not that there is anything inherently evil in the music of the Beetles, but it does indicate that any external influence can be interpreted by the receiving mind in ways that are productive or destructive. Evil is created in the mind long before it is externalized. This concept reinforces the idea that the foundation of self must be grounded in wholesome social values. All too often, in our very materialistic society, we find a culture fixed on the acquisition of things with a total disregard for the ethics involved in the process of acquiring them.

Sabian philosophy teaches that to understand this concept properly, we must realize that inspiration is the light of truth that is diffused through life and experience. So here we have light, not only as a happy analogy, but also as the literal nature of truth and subsequently of all wisdom.

This approach to creative living is based on Ibn Gabirol's Fountain of Life Book IV, Chapter 14. Here the Teacher explains the most important tenet in his entire work, that all of creation is composed of matter and form. Form is the light, matter (at the human level) is each one of us. Our life or "matter" is increased in value to the degree that it is in-formed by the light of truth. Our life is decreased in value to the degree that it is informed by the darkness of lesser values.

A practical application of the concept of inspiration would be to look around you and find light — situations that shine with inspiring values. Contrariwise, look around you and find darkness — situations that reveal vulgarity, deception, or any conduct not worthy of "human" beings.

The Concept of Certainty

There is no such thing as absolute certainty in the finite realm. Certainty in any given case is relative to the knowledge and experience of the knower. In the scientific realm, it is the knowledge of the accumulated facts of the scientist. In the spiritual realm, it is the life experience of the seeker after truth. This leads to the obvious conclusion that we can always find someone who is closer to the truth than we are, and hence more certain. It is from the more informed ones that we can seek advice to increase our own certainty.

Sabian philosophy teaches that we can obtain confirmation of our level of certainty in any given matter by what is known as signature. Signature confirms, by favorable coincidence, that we are "in the right place at the right time." This is not superstition but rather a conclusion based on the philosophy that the whole of the cosmos is interconnected and that if we are grooved favorably in one area of experience, there is every expectation that other circumstances of our life are equally healthy. The same idea is expressed in the popular axiom: "let go and let God."

This approach to creative living is based on Ibn Gabirol's Fountain of Life Book IV, Chapter 19. Here the Teacher explains that the Will of the Primary Existent (God in non-philosophical language) pervades the whole universe and that every living creature participates in Its influence. As the individual aligns himself to this Will, to the best of his certainty, then the individual's activity will be grooved for success as surely as is every act of the Creator.

A practical application of the concept of certainty would be to look for favorable coincidences (signature) that confirm some current path of ongoing in your life. For example, if you are looking for a new job, look for favorable coincidences in areas (not related to employment) that confirm you are on the right path in your job search.

The Concept of Distinction

Distinction in any endeavor means that the individual has surpassed the average drift of the "still-to-flower" person, and this requires extraordinary effort in the gaining. Such distinction often carries with it the burden of "breaking with the crowd," so to speak. Whether it is from the limitations of family taboos, from the bonds of a prejudiced culture, or the too-narrow doctrines of a religious community, the person of distinction must decide for himself the "right" way. But rising above the level of the average citizen does not mean that we disregard them and leave them behind in their indistinctness. Just the opposite is true. If we are to be truly distinct, we must first learn the ways of our fellows so that our distinctiveness offers an opportunity for them to gain some measure of distinction. This is the meaning of the words of Jesus, "If I be lifted up, I will draw all men to me."

Sabian philosophy teaches that the present life on earth is not a prison from which the earnest soul must escape in order to reach some eternal reward but a place of opportunity that provides the concreteness necessary for immortal consciousness.

This approach to creative living is based on Ibn Gabirol's Fountain of Life Book V, Chapter 8. Here the Teacher explains that the intellectual soul cannot achieve its end (totally conscious existence) without some intermediary. This is so because the immortal intellect does not have the requisite faculties to directly grasp the things of the sense world. For this, the immortal soul needs an intermediary. That intermediary is the living personality of each of us.

A practical application of the concept of distinction would be to make a unique contribution to your fellows tomorrow. This might be a symbolic gesture, such as buying a friend a cup of coffee or making a small donation to a needy cause. For that moment, you will be distinct.

The Concept of Weight

Weight is used here in the sense of "that person carries weight with his fellow workers." A person who carries weight is a person who others can trust to say things that make sense and execute his decisions with competency and thoroughness. This kind of person not only has theoretical knowledge about situations but he has the practical know-how to handle them competently. It is for this reason that he is respected and "carries weight."

Sabian philosophy teaches that every human being has vast potential. Unfortunately this promise often lies fallow because the individual lacks the proper incentive and determination to actualize this potential. Acquiring wealth is an example of a potential that is actualized by the industrious person. The point here is to realize that something known only in principle is of little value unless it is actualized or made real in the world of every day.

This approach to creative living is based on Ibn Gabirol's Fountain of Life Book V, Chapter 11. Here the Teacher continues his emphasis on his underlying thesis — that all things are composed of matter and form. Of the two, matter is the potential component and form, or intelligence, is the active component. Matter cannot act; it can only be acted upon. An example of this is the potential to amass wealth. Everyone has the capacity in one way or another, but it is only the industrious person who acquires it. In this example, wealth as such is the passive or potential matter. The form or active component is the person with industry.

A practical application of the concept of weight would be to actualize something of value — tangible or intangible — by demonstrating or sharing it with another. For example, if you are convinced that being kind is a worthwhile virtue, actualize it by showing someone a kindness.

The Concept of Purity

The human capacity that we perhaps least understand is that we are creators. We perceive ourselves to be more or less "operated on" by circumstances, people, or fate. For the more pious soul, this passivity is raised to a virtue when he says, "God permitted this calamity to befall me." Nothing could be further from the truth. The purity spoken of in this concept is the knowledge that we participate in divinity. To the degree that we understand and operate by this principle, to that degree are we pure. To say that we create our own lives is not to say that we can protect ourselves from experiencing thunder storms, natural disasters, or accidental harm. But what is always in our control is the attitude with which we accept what life gives us. Joy, happiness, and fulfillment are in the attitude, not in the event. We are the creators of our attitude, and need never be held bondage to external compulsions against our will.

Sabian philosophy teaches that we can control our destinies through our ability to visualize or anticipate coming events. To the degree that we are pure, that is, to the degree that our lives are one with our unfolding divine potential, to that degree will we see the paths of our life-scripts imaginatively and thus actualize them successfully.

This approach to creative living is based on Ibn Gabirol's Fountain of Life Book V, Chapter 13. Here the Teacher articulates this idea when he says that reason is a universal capacity, and reason contains in it all lower capacities. As we unite the activities of our lower sense perceptions and emotions with the higher light of reason, we can align our personalities to the true purpose, or form, of reason.

A practical application of the concept of purity would be to spend a short amount of time, preferably daily, in some kind of formal or informal meditation. Call it quiet time if that is a more appealing term. The point of it is to realize that there is a higher source of understanding available to us than can be found in the daily news report.

Copyright © 1998 by William T. Roche
All Rights Reserved